Nickel Alloys .Net

FeNi36 Invar - Nickel Iron Alloy

Chemical Formula

Ni-Fe Alloy

Topics Covered

  • Background
  • Discovery and Nobel Prize
  • Physical Properties
  • Current Uses
  • Cathode Ray Tubes
  • Other Applications
  • Low Expansion Alloys
  • Sealing Alloys
  • Future Uses
  • Composite Manufacturing


Few people realise that the nickel-iron alloy, FeNi36 Invar, plays a crucial part in so many of their household controls and office appliances. This role was established soon after its discovery 100 years ago in 1896. FeNi36 is the forerunner of a family of controlled expansion nickel-iron alloys which form the essential part of bimetals and thermostats. FeNi36 Invaritself is still used today in vast numbers of household appliances, from electric irons and toasters to gas cookers and fire safety cutoffs. In the office, computer terminals and TV screens make extensive use of FeNi36 and other Ni-Fe alloys for shadow masks, frames, and cathode ray tube gun parts.

Other applications for these special alloys are continuing to be found in industry for advanced electronic components, filters in mobile phone networks and even as tank membranes for massive liquefied natural gas transport ships.

Discovery and Nobel Prize

When Invar FeNi36 was discovered in 1896, its unique property of low and linear expansion over a wide temperature range allowed the production of effective bimetals which could be used in safety cut-off devices for gas cookers and heaters. For his work on the nickel-iron system and the discovery of FeNi36 Invar, Charles Edouard Guillaume of Imphy was awarded a Nobel prize for Physics early in the 20th century.

One of the traditional uses for Invar FeNi36 has been for the thermostat of electric immersion heaters, used for a variety of domestic and commercial water heating systems. Operation of the thermostat is based upon differential expansion between a brass tube and an inner Invar FeNi36 rod, the resulting movement being used to actuate a microswitch. The set temperature is commonly adjustable in the range between 48-83°C.

Physical Properties

Invar FeNi36 is a 36% nickel iron alloy which has the lowest thermal expansion among all metals and alloys in the range from room temperature up to approximately 230°C. The Invar FeNi36 alloy is ductile and easily weldable, and machinability is similar to austenitic stainless steel. It does not suffer from stress corrosion cracking.

The mean coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of FeNi36 from 20-100°C is less than 1.3 x 10-6°C-1. The Curie point is 230°C, and density is 8.1 kg.m-3.

Current Uses of Nickel Iron Alloy FeNi36 Invar

Cathode Ray Tubes

Between the range -100 to +200°C Invar FeNi36's CTE is very low. This feature is very useful for many specific applications in high tech industry. Cathode ray tubes for television and display screens are increasingly required to provide greater user comfort, with higher contrast, improved brightness and sharper definition. This progress has been made possible by the use of shadow masks made from Invar FeNi36 strip, with its low coefficient of thermal expansion allowing precise dimensioning of components even with changing temperature.

Other Applications

Other application areas, such as telecommunications, aeronautical and aerospace engineering, cryogenic engineering (liquefied natural gas tankers) etc, require either high dimensional stability with variation in temperature, or expansion characteristics matched with those of other materials, such as glass, ceramics, or composites.

The diversity of these requirements has led to the development of a wide range of Fe-Ni, Fe-Ni-Co and Fe-Ni-Cr alloys, in two major groups:

Low Expansion Alloys

These include Invar FeNi36 and N42. As electronic components become ever more miniature, the demands on the material used in their manufacture become ever more critical. The production of lead frames for example requires very close dimensional tolerances and high cleanliness combined with exceptional stamping or chemical etching performance. Grades of N42 have been specifically developed to match these requirements.

Sealing Alloys

These include other Fe-Ni grades, Fe-Ni-Co and Fe-Ni-Cr alloys. A full range of alloys have been produced to associate with the principal glasses supplied by major manufacturers including Schott, Corning, NEG and Ashai. These glasses used in electronics are chosen for specific physical, chemical or optical properties and the choice of the associated sealing metal depends on the glass and the type of seal (matched or compressive).

Future Uses

Appropriate solutions are needed to match the requirements created by technologies which are in rapid and perpetual evolution, and these could come from Invar FeNi36 and its nickel iron alloy derivatives.

Composite Manufacturing

Invar FeNi36 also has an important role to play in the future of composite manufacturing. The aerospace industry will make increasing use of composites for weight/strength improvements. The manufacturing process of composite multilayer structures involves moulding on tools which are then autoclaved. Tooling materials must provide temperature resistance, very low CTE to match the composite, vacuum integrity, thermal conductivity and machinability.

A single tooling material to meet all the requirements does not exist, but of all metallic and non-metallic (e.g. carbon fibre/epoxy) options, Invar FeNi36 provides one of the lowest CTEs of all, the major criterion. The compatibility of the CTE of the Invar mould and the composite parts avoids distortion, induced stress and warpage. Studies carried out by Boeing show that Invar FeNi36 is the material which will provide the best compromise between the most important requirements (like CTE and durability) and overall fabrication costs.

Property Table of Invar FeNi36


Material Invar FeNi36 - Nickel Iron Alloy
Property Minimum Value (S.I.) Maximum Value (S.I.) Units (S.I.) Minimum Value (Imp.) Maximum Value (Imp.) Units (Imp.)
Atomic Volume (average) 0.0068 0.0071 m3/kmol 414.961 433.268 in3/kmol
Density 8.1 8.2 Mg/m3 505.667 511.91 lb/ft3
Energy Content 50 200 MJ/kg 5416.93 21667.7 kcal/lb
Bulk Modulus 106 112 GPa 15.374 16.2442 106 psi
Compressive Strength 240 725 MPa 34.8091 105.152 ksi
Ductility 0.06 0.45   0.06 0.45  
Elastic Limit 240 725 MPa 34.8091 105.152 ksi
Endurance Limit 185 405 MPa 26.832 58.7402 ksi
Fracture Toughness 120 150 MPa.m1/2 109.206 136.507 ksi.in1/2
Hardness 1200 2400 MPa 174.045 348.091 ksi
Loss Coefficient 0.0003 0.0011   0.0003 0.0011  
Modulus of Rupture 240 725 MPa 34.8091 105.152 ksi
Poisson's Ratio 0.28 0.3   0.28 0.3  
Shear Modulus 54 58 GPa 7.83204 8.41219 106 psi
Tensile Strength 445 810 MPa 64.5418 117.481 ksi
Young's Modulus 137 145 GPa 19.8702 21.0305 106 psi
Glass Temperature     K     °F
Latent Heat of Fusion 270 290 kJ/kg 116.079 124.677 BTU/lb
Maximum Service Temperature 600 700 K 620.33 800.33 °F
Melting Point 1690 1710 K 2582.33 2618.33 °F
Minimum Service Temperature 0 0 K -459.67 -459.67 °F
Specific Heat 505 525 J/kg.K 0.390798 0.406276 BTU/lb.F
Thermal Conductivity 12 15 W/m.K 22.4644 28.0805 BTU.ft/h.ft2.F
Thermal Expansion 0.5 2 10-6/K 0.9 3.6 10-6/°F
Breakdown Potential     MV/m     V/mil
Dielectric Constant            
Resistivity 75 85 10-8 ohm.m 75 85 10-8 ohm.m


Environmental Properties
Resistance Factors
1=Poor 5=Excellent
Flammability 5
Fresh Water 5
Organic Solvents 5
Oxidation at 500C 5
Sea Water 5
Strong Acid 4
Strong Alkalis 5
UV 5
Wear 4
Weak Acid 5
Weak Alkalis 5
Primary author: Colin Woolger | Source: Materials World, Vol. No. pp. 332-33, June 1996.
For more information on Materials World please visit The Institute of Materials.
Invar FeNi36 has the lowest thermal expansion of any known metal or alloy from room temperature up to 230C. Special low expansion and sealing alloy grades are available. Applications include thermostats, bimetallic strips, cathode ray tubes, telecommunications, aerospace and gas tankers.

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